Chapter I: Climate change resilience for sustainable development

  • The international consensus on sustainable development
  • Moving climate resilience forward in implementing the
    2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
  • Climate change and variability, and the uneven impacts of climate hazards
    • Uneven impacts across countries
    • Uneven impacts across population groups
    • Uneven impacts within population groups
  • A framework for understanding risk and policy
    • Exposure, vulnerability and structural inequalities
    • Transformative policies for climate resilience
  • Organization of the chapters of this Survey

Appendix I.1: Uncertainty of the prospects for the global distribution of income in 2050
based on alternative development pathways

Chapter II: Climate change and inequality nexus

  • Introduction
  • The social impact of climate change
    • Poverty and livelihoods
    • From poverty and inequality to structural inequalities
  • Links between climate hazards and inequalities
    • Inequalities increase the risk of climate hazards
    • Multidimensional channels of inequality
  • Inequalities and exposure to climate hazards
    • The confluence of economic and political factors
    • Demographic trends
    • Gender and livelihood patterns
  • Inequalities and susceptibility to climate hazards
  • Income, assets and livelihoods
  • Gender and age
  • Ethnicity and race
  • Susceptibility to health damage
  • Inequalities and the ability to cope and recover
  • Recovery trajectories
  • Coping capacity using own resources
  • Importance of insurance
  • The choice between human and physical capital
  • Diversification capacity and adaptive strategies
  • Common property, ecosystems and social resources
  • The role of public resources
  • Policy implications

Appendix II.1: Approaches to managing the risks of climate change through adaptation

Chapter III: Bringing inequalities to the forefront of climate assessments

  • Introduction
  • The integrated approach to climate impact assessments
    • Analytical steps and strengths of the integrated approach
    • Emphasis on mitigation and long-term climate change
    • Insufficient analysis of the macroeconomic feasibility of policies
    • The tendency to exclude inequalities or address
      them inadequately
  • Analytical dimensions of inequalities in climate impact assessments
    • Livelihoods and climate-sensitive natural resources
    • Ownership of production factors and income distribution
    • Human capital, public services and resources
    • Socioeconomic characteristics at the household level
    • Vulnerability through the lens of stakeholders
  • Challenges going forward

Appendix III.1: Determinants of vulnerability and resilience: a household survey-based analysis

Chapter IV: Coherent, participatory and adaptive policymaking for climate resilience

  • Introduction
  • Increasing policy coherence and integration across sectors
    • Integration in support of a multisectoral approach
    • Integrated policies that promote co-benefits
    • A need for coherent policies to prevent maladaptation
    • Overcoming constraints on integration
  • Involving all stakeholders in identifying risks and implementing solutions
    • Why involve all stakeholders?
    • Ensuring equitable participation
    • Taking advantage of local knowledge
    • Taking advantage of local social networks
  • The need for an iterative and flexible policy process to cope with uncertainties
    • Uncertainty
    • An iterative policy process
    • Low- or no-regret interventions
  • Final considerations

Chapter V: Enhanced cooperation for climate-resilient development

  • Introduction
  • Financing local climate adaptation at a global scale
    • The many ways to count to $100 billion
    • Explaining the adaptation financing gap
    • Overcoming barriers: policy scenarios for scaling up adaptation finance
  • Data and statistics for climate resilience
    • Missing data on vulnerable population groups
    • Improving statistics and indicators for addressing climate change vulnerability
  • Foundations for partnerships going forward